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154 Journal of Mycology [Vol. 12 

cause to account for the breaking up of a primitive species into 
two or more modern parallel species with different lengths of 
life-cycle, I think it may be found in the augmented influence of 
parasitism. In the primitive times the rusts were doubtless but 
weakly parasitic, but in their onward development parasitism 
with its restricting and reducing effects became constantly more 
pronounced. To develop the theory here would extend this 
article beyond reasonable limits, but it is believed to fully ac- 
count for the observed parallelism. It also accounts for the 
fact that essentially the same shortening of the life-cycle occurs 
or may be looked for in every group of the Uredinales, but is 
most extensive in the groups showing the greatest differentia- 
tion and highest development. And finally it does not militate 
in the opinion of the writer against the validity of genera whose 
ultimate distinction is that of the length of the life-cycle, but 
lends important aid in tracing their relationships. 

The arguments in this article have in the main been directed 
against or received their support from the old-time genus Puc- 
cinia and its consort Uromyces, believing that whatever would 
prove acceptable to systematists in this connection can readily 
be extended to the whole order of the Uredinales. I have thus 
presented some of the reasons which appeal to me for desiring 
a better classification of the Uredinales, believing that when 
obtained it will promote the study of the order and facilitate 
an understanding of relationships. 



NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPIOTA. 

A. P. MORGAN. 

The name Lepiota was given by Persoon to the first section 
of "his genus Agaricus; it had a wider application in the "Syn- 
opsis" than is assigned to it in the genus of the same name at the 
present time. Fries in the '"Systema" made of the term Lepiota 
a tribal designation, restricting it to the species of Agaricus about 
as understood at present. The species thus included are well 
worthy of generic distinction. 

Fries in the Hymenomycetes Europaei enumerates 45 species 
of Lepiota. Since the publication of this volume (1874) Euro- 
pean mycologists have increased the number to more than 100. 
The region most prolific in species of this genus so far dis- 
covered is the island of Ceylon where upward of 70 species were 
enumerated and described by Berkeley and Broome. Sacardo in 
the different volumes of the Sylloge Fungorum enumerates more 
than 300 species. 

Schweinitz in the North American Fungi ( 1834) gives a list 
of 5 species of Lepiota. In Lea's Catalogue (1849) there is a 



July 1906] North American Species of Lepiota 155 

list of 4 species. Sprague in one of his papers (1858) enumer- 
ates 5 species. The Amherst Catalogue (1875) contains 11 
species. The Pacific Coast Catalogue (1850) 5 species. Com- 
prehensive and critical work upon the Fungi of North America 
began with the publication ( in 1870) of the 23d Report of the 
State Botanist of New York, Charles H. Peck. The series of 
Reports upon the Fungi of the State of New York issued an- 
nually from that year up to the present suggests the extent and 
richness of the Northern Fungal Flora. 

There has been enumerated up to this time near 80 species 
of North American Lepiotas, plainly an inadequate number for 
the vast territory considered. Peck's monograph of the genus in 
the 35th New York Report (1882), appears to be still about all 
we have to work with ; it describes only 18 species ! It is there- 
fore suggested that we endeavor to marshall the species known 
and described up to date into some sort of order that we may, 
first, make a more critical study of them, and secondly, bring to 
light such species as are not yet recognized. For this purpose 
we are applying to North American species a scheme of arrange- 
ment which we make use of to refer to the numerous species of 
Lepiota described in the Sylloge Fungorum. 

Lepiota Persoon, Synopsis 1801; Fries, Syst. Myc. 1821. 
Hym. Eur. 1874; Saccardo, Sylloge Fungorum, V, IX, XI, 
XIV, XVI, XVII. 

Pileus soft fleshy, rather dry; veil marginal. Stipe hollow 
or fibrous-stuffed, rarely solid, commonly tapering upward from 
a thickened base; volva none. Lamellae free, approximate or 
remote, rarely reaching the stipe; spores white, sometimes with 
a tinge of pink or yellow, in one species bright green. . 

Agarics varying in size from the largest to very small, grow- 
ing usually in rich soil, a few species on old decaying wood. The 
surface of the pileus may be smooth and glabrous, more com- 
monly the dermis is broken up into granules, warts and scales; 
in a few species the surface is viscid or glutinous. Fries invests 
the pileus in this genus with a universal veil concrete with the 
dermis. According to De Bary, Brefeld and others there is 
l)Ut a partial or marginal veil. This veil is a membrane joining 
the margin of the pileus to the surface of the stipe ; it continues 
to grow along with the general growth of the pileus and stipe 
until the time of the hyponastic upward expansion of the former 
when it is torn away from the margin of the pileus and is left 
behind upon the stipe. The mode of development of the partial 
veil and the manner of its rupture occur in three different ways 
which are made use of to arrange the species of Lepiota into 
three different sections. These sections are defined in accord- 
ance with the views of De Bary as expressed in his Comparative 
Morphology. 



156 Journal of Mycology [Vol . 12 

§ I. ANNULI INFERI. THE VEIL IN THIS SEC- 
TION HAS A TWO-FOLD ORIGIN; IT IS A CONTINUA- 
TION OF THE OUTERMOST ROW OF CELLS OF THE 
STIPE WHICH HAS GROWN FOR SOME TIME WITH 
THE STIPE BY INTERCALARY GROWTH AND PASSES 
INTO THE MARGIN OF THE PILEUS; AND CON- 
VERSELY IT IS A CONTINUATION OF THE OUTER- 
MOST HYPHAE OF THE PILEUS PASSING INTO THE 
SURFACE OF THE STIPE. THE SEPARATION TAKES 
PLACE AT THE MARGIN OF THE PILEUS, THE VEIL 
REMAINS ATTACHED TO THE STIPE AS A RING OR 
AS A SHEATH RUNNING DOWN ITS SURFACE OR 
SOMETIMES PORTIONS OF IT FORM A FRINGE OR 
APPENDAGE TO THE MARGIN OF THE PILEUS. 

I. MESOMORPHAE. Dermis of the pileus entire, the 
surface of both pileus and stipe smooth and glabrous; the veil 
annulate, often evanescent. 

A tribe of small Agarics. More than a dozen species are 
enumerated in the Sylloge Fungorum. 

1. LEPIOTA MESOMORPHA Bulliard, Herb. Fr. 1791. 
Pileus a little fleshy, campanulate then expanded, dry, 

smooth and glabrous, whitish, ochraceous or yellowish. Stipe 
short, slender, hollow, smooth and glabrous, concolorous with the 
pileus ; the annulus more or less persistent. Lamellae rather nar- 
row, white, free, approximate ; spores elliptic-ovoid, 4-5 x 3 mic. 
Growing on the ground in woods. Preston, O. Pileus about 
2 cm. in diameter, the stipe 5-7 cm. long and about 2 mm. thick. 

2. LEPIOTA RUFIPES Morgan sp. nov. 

Pileus a little fleshy, convex, smooth and glabrous, white. 
Stipe slender, smooth and glabrous, rufescent, paler at the 
summit; the annulus evanescent. Lamellae broad, close, white, 
free, approximate ; spores oblong, 4-5 x 3 mic. 

Growing on the ground in woods among old leaves; Pres- 
ton, O. Pileus about a centimeter in diameter, the stipe 2-3 
cm. long. 

II. EUCONIATI. Dermis of the pileus not lacerate, but 
the surface pruinose, finely pulverulent or minutely furfuraceous; 
the investment of the stipe usually similar to that of the pileus; 
the veil often appendiculate. 

These are mostly small Agarics easily recognized by the 
powdery surface of the pileus. 

A. STIPE GLABROUS. 

3. LEPIOTA CRISTATELLA Peck, 31st N. Y. Rep. 1878. 
Pileus thin, convex, subumbonate, minutely mealy especially 

on the margin, white, the disk slightly tinged with pink; the 
veil lacerate, leaving fragments on the margin or evanescent. 



July 1906] North American Species of Lepiota 167 

Stipe slender, hollow, glabrous, whitish. Lamellae close, rounded 
behind, free, white; spores subelliptic, 5 mic. long. 

Growing in mossy places in the woods. New York. Peck. 
Pileus 4-8 mm. in diameter, the stipe 2-3 cm. long and about 
I mm. thick. 

B. STIPE PULVERULENT OR MINUTELY FUR- 
FURACEOUS. 

4. LEPIOTA CHEIMONOCEPS B. & C. Fungi C"^- 
1867. 

Snow-white. Pileus thin, pulverulent ; the margin here and 
there appendiculate. Stipe thickened downward, furfuraceous ; 
the annulus lacerate. Lamellae rather broad, free, remote; 
spores subglobose, 8x6 mic. 

Growing on logs. Cuba. Wright. Pileus 2-4- cm. in diam- 
eter, the stipe 2-3 cm. long. A very pretty species. 

5. LEPIOTA NOSCITATA Britzelmayer, Derm, et Mel. 
App. 

Pileus ovoid-conic then expanded, subumbonate, white, 
rufescent in the center, glabrous or very minutely flocculose; 
the margin faintly striate. Stipe elongated, hollow, tapering up- 
ward, very minutely flocculose, rufescent; the annulus minutely 
flocculose, evanescent. Lamellae white, rather broad, free ; spores 
ovoid-oblong, 3.5-4.5 x 3 mic. 

Growing in rich soil in woods, Preston, O. Pileus 2-3 cm. in 
diameter, the stipe 4-6 cm. long and 2-3 mm. thick. 

6. LEPIOTA SEMINUDA Lasch, Linnaea III. 1828. 
Pileus very thin, campanulate then expanded, umbonate, floc- 

cose-mealy, at length naked, whitish or pinkish; the margin ap- 
pendiculate by the torn veil. Stipe hollow, slender, farinaceous. 
Lamellae rather narrow, white, reaching the stipe ; spores ovoid, 
3-4x2.5 mic. 

Growing on the ground in woods. Preston, O. Pileus 2-3 
cm. in diameter, the stipe 3-5 cm. long and about 2 mm. thick. 

7. LEPIOTA PARVANULATA Lasch, Linnaea III, 
1828. 

Pileus a little fleshy, ovoid then campanulate and ex- 
planate, subumbonate, even, slightly silky or subpruinate, white 
with a tinge of ochre in drying. Stipe subequal, slender, hollow, 
white, below the annulus fibrillose. Lamellae broad, white, close, 
free, approximate ; spores elliptic, 3-4 x 2.5 mic. 

Growing on the ground in grassy places. Preston, O. Pi- 
leus about a centimeter in diameter, the stipe 2-3 cm. long and 
about 2 mm. thick. 

8. LEPIOTA CYANOZONATA Longyear, 3 Rep. Mich. 
Ac. Sci. 1901. 



158 Journal of Mycology [Vol. 12 

Pileus a little fleshy, ovoid then campanulate and expanded, 
subumbonate, minutely fibrillose when young, soon glabrous, 
creamy or pinkish white with a narrow zone of light blue near 
the margin; the veil delicate, fibrous, evanescent. Stipe nearly 
equal, fistulose, whitish, minutely scaly, attached by an abundant 
strigose mycelium. Lamellae rather broad, whitish, free, ap- 
proximate ; spores subglobose, with a minute apiculus, 6-8 mic. 

Growing on decaying sticks on the ground in woods ; Michi- 
gan. Longyear. Pileus 1-2 cm. in diameter, the stipe 2-3 cm. 
long and about 2 mm. thick. The whole plant becomes brownish 
when bruised and in drying. "Its striking feature is the delicate 
blue marginal zone which is suggestive of the specific name." 

9. LEPIOTA PURPUREOCONIA Atkinson, Journal 
Mycol. 1902. 

Pileus thin, convex, the surface covered with a purplish 
powder; the marginal veil consisting of the same powdery sub- 
stance. Stipe thick, solid, whitish within, below the annulus 
covered by the same purplish powder as the pileus. Lamellae 
broad, rather distant, white or yellowish, free, approximate; 
spores elliptic, 8-10 x 3-4 mic. 

Growing on the ground in woods; New York. Atkinson. 
Pileus 1-2 cm. in diameter, the stipe 4-5 cm. long and 3-4 mm. 
in thickness. 

10. LEPIOTA ECITODORA Atkinson, Journal Mycol. 
1902. 

Pileus thin, convex, pale lavender, minutely scaly or pruin- 
ose; the veil powdery and evanescent. Stipe tapering down- 
ward, white and pruinose above, dark brown to blackish below. 
Lamellae narrow, rounded behind, free, yellowish; spores cyl- 
indric, ^-11 x 2.0-2.5 mic. 

Growing on the ground in woods. New York. Atkinson. 
Pileus 2 cm. in diameter, the stipe 4-5 cm. long and 2-3 mm. 
thick. "Odor foetid resembling that of Eciton ants." 

11. LEPIOTA PULVERACEA Peck, 54th N. Y. Rep. 
1900. 

Pileus convex then expanded, pulverulent or minutely granu- 
lose, whitish or fulvescent ; the veil evanescent. Stipe thick, hol- 
low, granulose or squamulose below the annulus and colored as 
the pileus. Lamellae white or yellowish, adnexed; spores oval 
4x3 mic. 

Growing in woods on prostrate trunks of Spruce trees. New 
York. Peck. Pileus 2-3 cm. in diameter, the stipe 3-5 cm. long 
and 3-4 mm. in thickness. 

12. LEPIOTA PUSILLOMYCES Peck, 28th N. Y. Rep. 

1875- . 

Pileus ovoid then campanulate and expanded, subumbonate, 



July 1906] Descriptive Synopses of Morgan's, Etc. 159 

whitish or dusky, flocculose-pulverulent ; the margin appendicu- 
late by the lacerate veil. Stipe slender, nearly equal, fibrous- 
stuffed, rufescent beneath the white pulverulence. Lamellae very 
broad, white, free, approximate ; spores elliptic-oblong, 4-5 x 3 
mic. 

Growing in rich soil among old leaves in woods. New 
York. Peck. Plentiful about Preston, O. Pileus 10-15 mm. 
in diameter, the stipe 2-4 cm. long and 1-2 mm. thick. The pul- 
verulence consists of thin-walled globular cells. 

(To be continued.) 



DESCRIPTIVE SYNOPSES OF MORGAN'S NORTH 
AMERICAN SPECIES OF MARASMUS,* 

A. P. MORGAN. 

MARASMIUS Fries. Gen. Hym. 1836. 

Fungi tough and flexible^ drying up and more or less per- 
sistant, not putrescent, remving when moistened. Hymenophore 
continuous with the stipe but heterogenous, descending into the 
trama; veil none. Stipe cartilaginous or horny. Lamellae tough 
and Hexihle, subdistant, the edge acute and entire; spores white. 

Agarics small or minute, growing for the most part upon 
wood or among the old leaves in woods. 

§ I. COLLYBIA.— PILEUS TOUGH -FLESHY AT 
LENGTH SUBCORIACEOUS, COMMONLY SULCATE 
OR RUGULOSE, THE MARGIN AT FIRST INVOLUTE. 
STIPE SUBCARTILAGINOUS. LAMELLAE ADNATE 
OR NEARLY FREE. 

I. SCORTEI. Stipe solid or medullate-stuffed, then hol- 
low, fibrous within, externally a detersile villosity clothing the 
cartilaginous cuticle. Lamellae seceding-free. 

A. STIPE WOOLLY OR STRIGOSE AT THE BASE. 

a. Lamellae subdistant. 1-7. [Species Numbers.] 

b. Lamellate rather close. 8-14. 

B. STIPE NAKED AT THE BIASE OFTEN COM- 
POSED OF TWISTED FIBRES. 15-18. 

II. TERGINI. Stipe rooting, definitely tubular, not 
fibrous, but manifestly cartilaginous. Lamellae seceding-free. 
Pileus thinner than those of the former, hygrophanous 



* This should have immediately followed the article to which it per- 
tains — these synoptic descriptions serving well for a key to the species. 
As a separate it can be placed with the separate of the monograph. — 
Editor.]